Austrian History – Part I

Austria can trace its history back to the dawn of civilization. In pre-Roman times, the country was occupied by various Celtic tribes including the Celtic kingdom of Noricum.

In Roman times, Noricum was annexed by the Romans and became a province of the Empire. In fact, most of what is now Austria (all parts to the South of the Danube River) were part of the Roman Empire.

When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, Austria was invaded by tribes of Bavarians, Avars and Slavs. Most of Austria was eventually conquered by the Charlemagne in 788, and eventually became part of Eastern Francia (“Francia Orientalis”), and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976.

The first reference to to the name “Österreich” comes from 996, where the term “Ostarrîchi” is used to refer to the Babenberg lands (also known as “marchia Orientalis”).

Beginning in the 14th century, the Habsburgs began to gain more and more land around Austria. They also acquired more and more power in the Germany (which at that time fell within the Holy Roman Empire – after 1438, every single emperor but one, of the Holy Roman Empire, was a Habsburg). Eventually, through marriage, they also acquired Spain, Spanish lands in Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and the New World. Additionally, their victories over the Ottoman Turks in 1526 at the Battle of Mohacs, and again in 1683 at the siege of Vienna, eventually brought Hungary and Bohemia (the area that is today the Czech Republic) under Habsburg control.

By the 18th century however, things had begun to change. The last Spanish Habsburg, Charles II, died childless in 1700, and rule of Spain passed to the Bourbon, Philippe of Anjou (King Philip V of Spain). Moreover, following the War of Austrian Succession (1740 to 1748), Prussia began to first match, and eventually displace, the Habsburg Empire as the dominant power in German affairs.

How to Repair Credit History Inaccuracies

Many people want to repair credit history issues. There is a lot of free credit repair advice. Some of this advice about how to repair credit history issues is very good. Some is not so good. Just like any free advice, try to use several sources, rather than only one.

If you are trying to repair credit history inaccuracies, the first place to start is with the credit bureaus. Until recently, credit bureaus charged consumers a small fee for copies of their credit reports. A recently enacted law has made it easier for consumers to obtain copies of their credit reports and work to repair credit history inaccuracies. Consumers are entitled to one free copy of their credit report every year. The credit bureaus do not really give free credit repair advice. They usually tell consumers that only time can repair credit history issues, but it does not take as long as they say. If you are willing to do a little work, either on your own or with the help of a law firm that specializes in credit repair, then you can legally repair credit history problems.

In response to the FACT act, the three major credit bureaus created a website at which consumers can view and print copies of their credit reports. In order to attempt to repair credit history issues, you must first find out what information is on these credit reports. At, you can learn what negative items may be causing you problems. You may already know, since you are looking for free credit repair advice, but you will still need copies of your credit reports, even if you choose to hire someone to help you.

Once you have your credit reports, review the negative information that is listed. You can review the positive information, also, but it will not improve your credit score to have the positive items removed. Most of the work needed to repair credit history issues involves having inaccurate, obsolete or unverifiable information removed from your credit report. Unverifiable means that the credit bureau cannot verify the information. If you dispute any information on your credit report and the credit bureaus cannot verify it, then they must remove it. Some people that offer free credit repair advice suggest that you dispute every negative item on your credit report. Law firms that specialize in credit repair do not recommend that you dispute information that is accurate, but there are other techniques you can use.

The first step is to repair credit history inaccuracies. Check the name, address, social security number, previous addresses, open accounts, closed accounts, etc. If you find any information that is incorrect, report that immediately. The best free credit repair advice suggests writing a dispute letter to the credit bureau. Some of the credit bureaus allow consumers to dispute information on line, but the sites are frustrating to use. Attempts to repair credit history inaccuracies can be frustrating anyway, skip the additional frustration of trying to use the on-line dispute forms and write a letter.

Much free credit repair advice revolves around the letter writing. It is actually pretty simple. Use a standard business style letter. Be sure to include your name, your spouse’s name, address, social security number and any previous addresses from the last five years. Be sure to keep the letter unemotional, simply state the facts. Include copies of any proof that you may have that the information is inaccurate. Also include a copy of the credit report with the inaccurate information circled or highlighted. Much of the frustration related to attempts to repair credit history inaccuracies has to do with waiting. The credit bureaus have thirty days to investigate the dispute. So, it can take weeks before you receive a corrected copy of your report. They are required to send you a corrected copy free of charge.

You can view a sample copy of a dispute letter at the official website of the Federal Trade Commission. The FTC also offers free credit repair advice, but some of it can be discouraging. The worst advice is to do nothing. If you cannot do it yourself, get some help. Attempts to repair credit history problems sometimes do not include attempts to establish a good credit history. While working on removing negative credit information. Apply for a secured credit card, if you do not have one. Most banks offer them. These cards are secured by a savings account deposit and your credit limit is based on the amount in the account. You may think that these are not worthwhile, but lenders which offer secured credit cards report payment history to the credit bureaus. If you use the card a few times a month and pay off the balance each and every month, then you are establishing a “good” credit record. This will not repair credit history problems, but it is good free credit repair advice, because even after you remove the negative items, you need some positive items to get the best credit score possible.